Knowing Your Rights Against Pregnancy Discrimination
Pregnancy discrimination involves treating a woman whether, an applicant or a current employee, unfairly because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition associated with pregnancy or childbirth. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) makes discrimination based on pregnancy illegal when it involves employment, this is inclusive of hiring practices, termination, pay rates, job levels, promotions, layoff, training, benefits, such as vacation and insurance, and any other term of employment. https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/pregnancy.cfm
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) Affects Small & Big Business
The following are requirements of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), and requirements of Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) as they apply to women with pregnancy-related conditions. The PDA and ADA apply to employers with 15 or more employees and therefore include all large and many smaller employers.
The PDA establishes that an employer with more than 15 employees must treat women affected by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions in the same manner as other applicants or employees who are similar in their ability or inability to work. The PDA refers to and includes all aspects of employment, including firing, hiring, promotions, and benefits (such as leaves of absence and insurance benefits). Pregnant workers are protected from discrimination based on current pregnancy, past pregnancy, and potential pregnancy. http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/disability.cfm.
- Potential Pregnancy.An employer may not discriminate based on an employee’s intention or potential to become pregnant. For example, an employer may not exclude a woman from a job involving processing certain chemicals out of concern that exposure would be harmful to a fetus if the employee became pregnant. Concerns about risks to a pregnant employee or her fetus will rarely, if ever, justify sex-specific job restrictions for a woman of childbearing capacity.
- Past Pregnancy.An employer may not discriminate against an employee or applicant based on a past pregnancy or pregnancy-related medical condition or childbirth. For example, an employer may not fire a woman because of pregnancy during or at the end of her maternity leave.
- Medical Condition Related to Pregnancy or Childbirth.An employer may not discriminate against an employee because of a medical condition related to pregnancy and must treat the employee the same as others who are similar in their ability or inability to work but are not affected by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. For example, under the PDA, since lactation is a medical condition related to pregnancy, an employer may not discriminate against an employee because of her breastfeeding schedule. (For information about a provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that provides additional protections for breastfeeding employees, see the section on “Other Federal Laws Protecting Pregnant Workers” below.).
- Current pregnancy. Under the PDA, an employer cannot fire, refuse to hire, demote, or take any other adverse action against a woman if pregnancy, childbirth, or a related medical condition was a motivating factor in the adverse employment action. This is true even if the employer believes it is acting in the employee’s best interest. http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/disability_regulations.cfm.
Benefits of Employment Under the PDA
An employer must provide the same benefits of employment to women who are affected by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions that it gives to other workers who are similar in their ability or inability to work.
Light Duty Policies. An employer has to treat women affected by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions the same as other employees who are similar in their ability or inability to work with respect to light duty, alternative assignments, disability leave, or unpaid leave. http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/disability_regulations.cfm.
Leave: While an employer may not compel an employee to take leave because she is pregnant as long as she is able to perform her job, it must allow women with physical limitations resulting from pregnancy to take leave on the same terms and conditions (e.g., provide them with the same amount of leave) as others who are similar in their ability or inability to work.
A covered employer: may not use an employee’s pregnancy-related condition for medical clearance procedures that are not required of employees who are similar in their ability or inability to work, and may not remove a pregnant employee from her job because of pregnancy as long as she is able to perform her job, and must allow her to return to work following recovery from a pregnancy-related condition to the same extent that employees on sick and disability leave for other reasons are allowed to return.
If the pregnant employee used leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act, the employer must restore the employee to the employee’s original job or to an equivalent job with equivalent pay, benefits, and other terms and conditions of employment. (For information about the Family and Medical Leave Act, see the section on “Other Federal Laws Protecting Pregnant Workers” below.).
Title I of the ADA may require an employer to provide leave beyond that which it usually allows its employees to take, as a reasonable accommodation for an employee with a pregnancy-related impairment that is a disability.
Medical Benefits. The PDA requires employers who offer health insurance to include coverage of pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical conditions. An employer must provide the same terms and conditions for pregnancy-related benefits as it provides for benefits relating to other medical conditions.
Rules Against Harassment (In Addition to Protections)
In addition to protecting her job, it is against the law to harass a woman because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a related medical condition. Harassment is unlawful when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive environment, or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted). https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/pregnancy.cfm
What To Do if You Think Your Rights Have Been Violated?
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) will help you to decide what to do next, and conduct an investigation if you decide to file a charge of discrimination. Because you must file a charge within 180 days of the alleged violation in order to take further legal action (or 300 days if the employer is also covered by a state or local employment discrimination law), it is best to begin the process early. It is illegal for your employer to retaliate against you for contacting the EEOC or filing a charge. For more information, visit https://www.eeoc.gov, call 800-669-4000 (voice) or 800-669-6820 (TTY), or visit your local EEOC office at:
Las Vegas Local Office
|Location:||333 Las Vegas Blvd South
Las Vegas, NV 89101
|ASL Video Phone:||844-234-5122|
|Regional Attorney:||Anna Y. Park|
|Office Hours:||The Las Vegas Local Office is open Monday-Friday from 8:00 a.m – 4:30 p.m. Please call first to obtain information or to schedule an appointment with the Intake Officer.|
(see also https://www.eeoc.gov/field/index.cfm )
Additional Federal Laws Affecting Pregnant Workers
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows eligible employees of employers with 50 or more employees to take up to 12 workweeks of leave for, among other things, the birth and care of the employee’s newborn child and for the employee’s own serious health condition. The Department of Labor enforces the FMLA. For more information about the FMLA see http://www.dol.gov/whd.
Section 4207 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act amended the Fair Labor Standards Act to require employers to provide “reasonable break time” for hourly employees to express breast milk until the child’s first birthday. Employers are required to provide “a place, other than a bathroom, that is shielded from view and free from intrusion from coworkers and the public, which may be used by an employee to express breast milk.” Employers with fewer than 50 employees are not subject to this requirement if it “would impose an undue hardship by causing significant difficulty or expense when considered in relation to the size, nature, or structure of the employer’s business.” DOL has published a Fact Sheet providing general information on the break time requirement for nursing mothers. The Fact Sheet can be found at http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs73.htm
The Americans with Disabilities Act
Although pregnancy itself is not a disability, pregnant workers may have impairments related to their pregnancies that qualify as disabilities under the ADA. Amendments to the ADA made in 2008 make it much easier than it used to be to show that impairment is a disability. http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/ada/ A number of pregnancy-related impairments are likely to be disabilities, even though they are temporary, such as pregnancy-related carpal tunnel syndrome, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-related sciatica, postpartum depression and preeclampsia. https://adata.org/learn-about-ada
An employer may not discriminate against an individual whose pregnancy-related impairment is a disability under the ADA and must provide an individual with a reasonable accommodation, if needed, because of a pregnancy-related disability, unless the accommodation would result in significant difficulty or expense (“undue hardship”). https://www.ada.gov
Examples of reasonable accommodations that may be necessary for a pregnancy-related disability include the following:
1) Re-assigning marginal or nonessential functions (such as occasional lifting) that a pregnant worker cannot perform, or altering how a nonessential or marginal function is performed;
2) Allowing a pregnant worker more frequent breaks or allowing her to keep a water bottle at a workstation even though the employer generally prohibits employees from keeping drinks at their workstations;
3) Changing a work schedule so that someone who has morning sickness can work later than her usual start time and leave later to make up the time;
4) Providing equipment such as a chair when standing is generally accepted;
5) Providing additional breaks;
Workers with Caregiving Responsibilities
Discrimination against a worker with caregiving responsibilities violates Title VII if it is based on sex, and violates the ADA if it is based on a family member’s disability. For example, an employer violates Title VII by treating a female employee with young children less favorably than a male employee with young children when deciding on work opportunities, based on a belief that the mother should focus more on the children than on her career. In addition, an employer violates the ADA where it takes an adverse action, such as refusing to hire or denying promotion, against a mother of a newborn with a disability over concerns that she would take off a lot of time for the child’s care or that the child’s medical condition would impose high health care costs.
For Additional Resources Regarding your rights in the workplace regarding pregnancy, caregiving or a disability, the following are additional resources: